Avian influenza :
Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, is caused by various subtypes of the influenza A virus that primarily infect birds. These subtypes are classified based on the proteins found on the surface of the virus, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N).
There are multiple types of avian influenza viruses, but some of the most well-known and significant types include:
- H5N1: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is one of the most severe subtypes. It has caused outbreaks in poultry and has been known to transmit to humans, leading to severe illness and even death.
- H7N9: HPAI H7N9 is another subtype that has caused concern. It was first identified in China in 2013 and mainly affects poultry. While human infections are rare, they can be severe, with a high mortality rate.
- H9N2: This subtype is considered low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and has a wide host range, including birds and mammals. It has caused outbreaks in poultry and sporadic human infections, although with generally mild symptoms.
- H5N8: This subtype gained attention due to several recent outbreaks in poultry farms worldwide.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) :
Although influenza A viruses of avian origin have long been responsible for influenza pandemics, including the “Spanish flu” pandemic of 1918, human infections caused by avian subtypes of influenza A virus, most notably H5N1, have emerged since the 1990s (H5N1 in 1997; H9N2 in 1999; and H7N7 in 2003). The wide geographic distribution of influenza A H5N1 in avian species, and the number and severity of human infections are unprecedented. Together with the ongoing genetic evolution of this virus, these features make influenza A H5N1 a likely candidate for a future influenza pandemic. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of human infections caused by influenza A H5N1 virus… Learn more
Poultry AIV Antibody ELISA Kit :
ELISA assays are a fast and relatively inexpensive way to screen sera for antibodies to avian influenza virus. Commercial ELISA kits are available, and although they are more expensive than in-house tests, they provide a ready-to-use assay with good quality control.
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